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History of Noto

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Sunday, 19 September 2010 15:56

History of Noto

The original site of the town, Noto Antica, lies 8 km to the north, Mount Alveria. Here are found the first human settlements, which date back to the Bronze Age or Castellucciana ([from 2200 to 1450 BC), as evidenced by archaeological findings. According to legend, Neas, which was the name of the oldest known, would give birth to the Sicilian Ducezio leader, who in the fifth century BC would defend the city from the incursions of Greece. This is moved from the heights of the nearby Mount Mendel Alveria, surrounded by deep valleys, one of which flows the torrent of Noto. Soon Neas or Neaton, now Hellenistic customs, became part of the sphere of influence Syracuse.

According to Polybius and Livy, Neaton was a colony of Syracuse during the reign of Hiero II, recognized by the Romans in 263 BC with a peace treaty. The Gymnasium, the megalithic walls and the Hellenistic Hero validate the assumptions of historians. In 214 BC Neaton opened its doors to the army of the Roman consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus, and was so recognized as a city allied with the Romans (who called Netum) as Taormina and Messina. It suffered, as the island's other cities, the harassment of Verres, as described by Marco Tullio Cicerone. During the late Roman period in his area was built the Villa Romana del Tellaro (fourth century). After the occupation of Sicily (about 535-555) by legions of Byzantine Emperor Justinian, the territory of Noto was enriched with monuments such as the basilica of Eloro and the Citadel of Trigona Maccari, and the Oratory of Falconara the crypt of St Lorenzo Vecchio, the monastery of S. Marco, the Village district of Arc. Noto was occupied by the Arabs in 864 of the ras Khafaji well Sufyan, who fortified.

Given the importance attached to the city by the Arabs, it became known, in 903, and its territory Capovalle recorded the rationalization of agriculture and trade promotion. It was also established the silk industry, exploiting the presence of mulberry trees in the area. In 1091, Noto was occupied by the Grand Count Roger de Hauteville, and was given in fief to his son Jordan, who began building the castle and the Christian churches. During the reign of Emperor Frederick II of Swabia, in Noto, ruled by the Count Isibaldo Morecambe, was built the Benedictine monastery of Santa Maria Arch. During the Angevin period, April 2, 1282, Noto took part in the insurrection of the Sicilian Vespers. In 1299, during the war for the possession of Sicily between Frederick III of Aragon and Charles II of Anjou, the Chteau de Noto Ugolino Callari (or Callari) rebelled by passing the first part of it, and gave the military town of Robert of Anjou, son of Charles II. Back under the Aragonese, Noto was then ruled by William kick. Under the reign of Alfonso V of Aragon was the Viceroy of Sicily Nicol Speciale, Netino, which gave an important contribution to the development of the city, at the time ruled by the Duke Peter of Aragon, the king's brother. The Duke in 1431 he built the main tower of the Castello di Noto Antica. In 1503, through the intervention of Bishop Rinaldo Montuoro Landolina, King Ferdinand II of Aragon gave to note the title of "ingenious city" for the many figures who distinguished themselves in the fifteenth century in Art, Literature and Science, as John Aurispa, Antonio Cassarino, Antonio Corset, Andrea and Matthew Barbaziano Carnalivari. In 1542 the Viceroy Ferrante Gonzaga fortified the city walls. On 11 January 1693 the town, then in its full splendor, was destroyed by a devastating earthquake killed about 1,000 people.

Immediately after the terrible event Giuseppe Lanza, Duke of Camastra, who was appointed vicar general for the reconstruction of the Val di Noto, decided to rebuild the city on another site 8 km downstream, on the slopes of Mount Meti. In the plan of building the city intervened different personalities, as indicated by documents and by tradition, by Carlos de Grnenberg Dutch military engineer, the mathematician Giovanni Battista Netino Landolina, between the Jesuit Angelo Italy, all military architect Joseph Forman, but, beyond urban plan is to keep in mind that the current city is the result of work of many architects (Rosario Gagliardi, Paul Labisi, Vincenzo Sinatra, Antonio Mazza), master builders and masons, who, during the eighteenth century, create this unique urban environment .

In the nineteenth century, with the new administrative reform, the role of Capovalle lost Noto, who went to Syracuse. However in 1837, due to the motion Carbonaro of Syracuse, Noto became the capital of the Province, and in 1844 also center of a diocese. In 1848 the revolt broke out in Sicily and Masonic Noto compete. The following year he was sedated and Netino Matthew Rael, minister of the revolutionary government, went into exile in Malta. Noto in 1861, after the invasion of Giuseppe Garibaldi, became part of the Kingdom of Italy, initially retaining the title of the provincial capital, then returned to Syracuse in 1865. In 1870 he was inaugurated the Teatro Comunale, the exiled Raeli Matthew was appointed Minister of Justice and Religious Affairs of the new nation. Around 1880, Noto was built the railway station. After the Second World War began the process of migration to the northern regions of Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, Argentina, the USA and Canada. In recent years there has been an economic recovery, due to the development of tourism, which is the main resource of the baroque city. The city was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2002.
Last Updated on Tuesday, 21 September 2010 11:19
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